Once a government or tech company develops a definition of terrorism or violent extremism, it can be difficult to know how to apply these definitions to the variety of ways that terrorism and violent extremism manifests internationally and across online spaces.

This section of the site aims to highlight contextual resources on themes related to applying definitions to the online space.  GIFCT funds the Global Network on Extremism and Technology (GNET) to bring forward actionable insights from experts and practitioners around the world to better inform and give context to tech companies, governments, practitioners and other stakeholders in this field. Insights are curated here under context-based themes.


World Events

While robust policies and legislation on defining terrorism and violent extremism might be in place, it can be difficult to know how definitions apply to major global events. In recent years there have been significant offline events that impact counterterrorism and counter-extremism efforts online. The following key events highlight where global researchers have analyzed the impacts of these moments on the online space, focussing on how terrorist and violent extremist actors are using platforms around these events and where solutions can be found.


Coronavirus has had an ongoing and undeniable global impact on social, political, and economic structures. The pandemic and its related international lockdowns also saw increased activity from violent extremist networks, having a potential effect on processes of radicalization including from white supremacy, Islamist extremist, and misogyny-based violent extremist groups as well as violence-inducing conspiracy theory networks and accelorationist groups. Different extremist groups all sought to reinterpret or capitalize on the pandemic to suit their overall goals, affecting online trends and platform usage in different ways.

  • 06th April 2023
    From Blaming China to Attacking Domestic Elites: The Evolution of Hate Speech in a Telegram Channel during the COVID-19 Pandemic
    Dr. Matteo Vergani, Alfonso Martinez Arranz, Dr. Ryan Scrivens and Liliana Orellana
  • 14th March 2022
    “Victims of the Holocaust”: The ‘Freedom Convoy’ Subreddits as Spaces for Antisemitism and Far-Right Radicalisation
    Bàrbara Molas
  • 24th February 2022
    Communication Technologies, Conspiracies, and Disinformation in Latin America: COVID-19 and Beyond
    Dr. Alexis Henshaw
  • 25th November 2021
    COVID-19 Conspiricism and the Four Ds of Stochastic Terrorism
    Dr. Gerard Gill
  • 26th October 2021
    Thinking About the Crime-Terror Nexus in the COVID-19 era
    Isaac Kfir
  • 21st September 2021
    The Potential Effects of COVID-19 on Radicalisation to Violent Extremism
    Dr. Garth Davies, Edith Wu and Dr. Richard Frank
  • 08th September 2021
    Conspiracism, Extremism and the Battle Over Sacred Values
    Dr. Gerard Gill
  • 22nd June 2021
    Extremism Unmasked
    Marc-André Argentino
  • 24th May 2021
    Polarisation and the Pandemic: The Alternative für Deutschland’s Narration of COVID-19 on Twitter
    Chamin Herath, Dr. Suraj Lakhani, Dr. Lella Nouri, Anna Pingen and Dr. Kamil Yilmaz

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