Once a government or tech company develops a definition of terrorism or violent extremism, it can be difficult to know how to apply these definitions to the variety of ways that terrorism and violent extremism manifests internationally and across online spaces.

This section of the site aims to highlight contextual resources on themes related to applying definitions to the online space.  GIFCT funds the Global Network on Extremism and Technology (GNET) to bring forward actionable insights from experts and practitioners around the world to better inform and give context to tech companies, governments, practitioners and other stakeholders in this field. Insights are curated here under context-based themes.



Ideologically motivated violent groups and movements take different forms in different parts of the world. In a post-9/11 framework, and particularly since the rise of ISIS, most terrorist studies and counter-extremism work have focussed on Islamist extremist groups. However, we also see modern trends of groups associated with white supremacy and neo-Naziism, misogyny-based violent extremist groups often referred to as being part of the “incel” community, far-left groups, and neo-nationalist groups such as the Hindutva movement and Buddhist extremist groups in Asia. Across international far-right violent extremist trends we see an increase in violence inducing conspiracy theory networks, including new trends revolving around anti-vaccination movements and even anti-5G movements that have an effect on technology companies.

  • 27th April 2023
    The Lineage of Violence: Saints Culture and Militant Accelerationist Terrorism
    Jonathan Lewis, Joshua Molloy and Graham Macklin
  • 22nd March 2023
    Granola Nazis: Digital Traditionalism, the Folkish Movement and the Normalisation of the Far-Right
    Catherine Tebaldi
  • 20th March 2023
    Frank James: The New York Subway Shooter’s Radical Discourse on Social Media
    Khalil Boughali
  • 16th March 2023
    Unpacking the Incelosphere: In-group Categorisation, Incel Purity, and Competition
    GNET Team
  • 15th March 2023
    Discourses of Violence in Incel Online Discussions After the Plymouth Shooting
    Emilia Lounela
  • 14th March 2023
    ‘Incels are shit-post kings’: incels’ perceptions of online forum content
    Sarah Daly
  • 13th March 2023
    Incel PR: The Rebranding of the Incel Community & the Role of Media and Academia
    Rutger Sjoerts
  • 06th March 2023
    Soliciting Online Bayʿat: Pro-Islamic State Responses to Abu al-Hassan al-Hashimi al-Qurashi’s Death
    Meili Criezis and Mona Thakkar
  • 15th February 2023
    The Dangers of Pseudohistorical Conspiracy Theories
    Harrison Pates

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