Once a government or tech company develops a definition of terrorism or violent extremism, it can be difficult to know how to apply these definitions to the variety of ways that terrorism and violent extremism manifests internationally and across online spaces.

This section of the site aims to highlight contextual resources on themes related to applying definitions to the online space.  GIFCT funds the Global Network on Extremism and Technology (GNET) to bring forward actionable insights from experts and practitioners around the world to better inform and give context to tech companies, governments, practitioners and other stakeholders in this field. Insights are curated here under context-based themes.



Ideologically motivated violent groups and movements take different forms in different parts of the world. In a post-9/11 framework, and particularly since the rise of ISIS, most terrorist studies and counter-extremism work have focussed on Islamist extremist groups. However, we also see modern trends of groups associated with white supremacy and neo-Naziism, misogyny-based violent extremist groups often referred to as being part of the “incel” community, far-left groups, and neo-nationalist groups such as the Hindutva movement and Buddhist extremist groups in Asia. Across international far-right violent extremist trends we see an increase in violence inducing conspiracy theory networks, including new trends revolving around anti-vaccination movements and even anti-5G movements that have an effect on technology companies.

  • 10th January 2024
    Slipping Through the Cracks: Recognising Extremist Misogyny Outside of Inceldom
    Erin Stoner
  • 30th November 2023
    The Great Replacement in the Manosphere: Implications for Terrorism
    Alexander Faehrmann and Dr Steven Zech
  • 28th November 2023
    Online Gendered Narratives, LGBTQI+ Targeting, and the Far-Right in Australia and the UK
    Dr Alexandra Phelan, Claudia Wallner, Jessica White and James Paterson
  • 27th November 2023
    Men, Masculinities and Memes: The Case of Incels
    Jayden Haworth
  • 15th November 2023
    ‘We Don’t Co-parent with the Government’: Gender Ideology as a Global Culture War
    Catherine Tebaldi
  • 03rd November 2023
    Behind the Instagram Posts: The Role of Female Influencers on the Far-Right
    Jordan Chapman
  • 02nd October 2023
    Tankies: A Data-driven Understanding of Left-Wing Extremists on Social Media
    Utkucan Balci, Michael Sirivianos and Jeremy Blackburn
  • 11th September 2023
    Why We Should Care about Christian Identity Ideology and its Links to Antisemitic Mobilisation
    Eliza Marks
  • 04th September 2023
    Conspiracy Theories, Extremism and Violence: Why and When do Conspiracy Beliefs Lead to Violence?
    Jakob Guhl

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