Once a government or tech company develops a definition of terrorism or violent extremism, it can be difficult to know how to apply these definitions to the variety of ways that terrorism and violent extremism manifests internationally and across online spaces.

This section of the site aims to highlight contextual resources on themes related to applying definitions to the online space.  GIFCT funds the Global Network on Extremism and Technology (GNET) to bring forward actionable insights from experts and practitioners around the world to better inform and give context to tech companies, governments, practitioners and other stakeholders in this field. Insights are curated here under context-based themes.


World Events

While robust policies and legislation on defining terrorism and violent extremism might be in place, it can be difficult to know how definitions apply to major global events. In recent years there have been significant offline events that impact counterterrorism and counter-extremism efforts online. The following key events highlight where global researchers have analyzed the impacts of these moments on the online space, focussing on how terrorist and violent extremist actors are using platforms around these events and where solutions can be found.

Christchurch Terrorist Attack and the Christchurch Call to Action

The Christchurch terrorist attack in New Zealand in March 2019 marked a significant moment for counterterrorism efforts online. Weaponizing live streaming of the attack, the event highlighted the significance of international multi stakeholder synchronized responses to crises and prompted the creation of the Christchurch Call to Action. Additionally, the attack brought a renewed interest in the spread of right-wing extremism across various online spaces.

  • 10th June 2022
    The Gamification of Violent Extremism: An Empirical Exploration of the Christchurch Attack
    Dr. Suraj Lakhani
  • 16th March 2022
    A Review of International Multi-Stakeholder Frameworks for Countering Terrorism and Violent Extremism Online
    Maddie Cannon
  • 10th May 2021
    Collaboration and Legislation: Confronting Online Violent Extremism from New Zealand
    Cameron Sumpter
  • 26th April 2021
    From Gangs to Groupuscules & Solo-Actor Terrorism: New Zealand Far-Right Narratives and Counter-Narratives in the Context of the Christchurch Attack
    Dr. William Allchorn
  • 02nd February 2021
    Singapore: The Lure of the Far-Right
    Dr. Shashi Jayakumar
  • 18th January 2021
    Beyond the “LULZ:” Memifying Murder as ‘Meaningful’ Gamification in Far-Right Content
    Ashley Mattheis
  • 14th December 2020
    After Christchurch: Mapping Online Right-Wing Extremists
    Lise Waldek, Dr. Brian Ballsun-Stanton, Dr. Julian Droogan
  • 07th September 2020
    ‘Normal’ Authority? – Who’s Got the Power in a Democratic Information Environment
    Katja Theodorakis
  • 24th March 2020
    Two Years On: Understanding the Resonance of the Christchurch Attack on Imageboard Sites
    Milo Comerford, Jakob Guhl and Elise Thomas

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