Once a government or tech company develops a definition of terrorism or violent extremism, it can be difficult to know how to apply these definitions to the variety of ways that terrorism and violent extremism manifests internationally and across online spaces.

This section of the site aims to highlight contextual resources on themes related to applying definitions to the online space.  GIFCT funds the Global Network on Extremism and Technology (GNET) to bring forward actionable insights from experts and practitioners around the world to better inform and give context to tech companies, governments, practitioners and other stakeholders in this field. Insights are curated here under context-based themes.


Platform & Product Type/Focus

The internet is not a homogenous space. There is significant variation in what platforms or tools online do, and subsequently an equally significant variation in how a platform might be exploited and the signal available to a platform to detect such exploitation. Experts continue to track the different types of platforms and tools being exploited by terrorists and violent extremist, looking at how and why a group or individual might use a product. While some platforms are more global in usage, others are specific to trends in regions or particular types of violent extremist groups.

Social Media

As some of the most user facing and interactive platforms online, social media sites have been at the forefront of tracking violent extremist and terrorist trends online. Relevant research focusing on social media presents useful explorations of specific platforms.

  • 17th May 2023
    Inside the Cult of Stefan Molyneux: A Historical Exploration of Far-Right Radicalisation on YouTube
    Daniël Jurg, Maximilian Schlüter and Marc Tuters
  • 09th May 2023
    Christgram: White Christian Extremism on Telegram
    Jakob Guhl
  • 21st April 2023
    Wilayat Facebook and Instagram: An Exploration of Pro-IS Activities on Mainstream Platforms
    Meili Criezis
  • 30th January 2023
    More Than Just Pretty Pictures: A Comparison of Australian and Canadian Far-Right Extremist ‘Reaction’ Usage on Facebook
    Jade Hutchinson and Dr. Julian Droogan
  • 12th December 2022
    The Cissexist Assemblages of Content Moderation
    Rae Jereza
  • 21st September 2022
    The Role of User Agency in the Algorithmic Amplification of Terrorist and Violent Extremist Content
    Ellie Rogers
  • 14th September 2022
    The Tate Storm: Why Banning Andrew Tate from Social Media Will Not Stop the ‘King of Toxic Masculinity’
    Abhinaya Murthy
  • 12th September 2022
    Analysing Terrorgram Publications: A New Digital Zine
    Matthew Kriner and Bjørn Ihler
  • 08th September 2022
    Right-Wing Extremists’ Use of the Internet: Emerging Trends in the Empirical Literature
    Dr. Ryan Scrivens, Tiana Gaudette, Dr. Maura Conway and Dr. Thomas J. Holt

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