Once a government or tech company develops a definition of terrorism or violent extremism, it can be difficult to know how to apply these definitions to the variety of ways that terrorism and violent extremism manifests internationally and across online spaces.

This section of the site aims to highlight contextual resources on themes related to applying definitions to the online space.  GIFCT funds the Global Network on Extremism and Technology (GNET) to bring forward actionable insights from experts and practitioners around the world to better inform and give context to tech companies, governments, practitioners and other stakeholders in this field. Insights are curated here under context-based themes.



Ideologically motivated violent groups and movements take different forms in different parts of the world. In a post-9/11 framework, and particularly since the rise of ISIS, most terrorist studies and counter-extremism work have focussed on Islamist extremist groups. However, we also see modern trends of groups associated with white supremacy and neo-Naziism, misogyny-based violent extremist groups often referred to as being part of the “incel” community, far-left groups, and neo-nationalist groups such as the Hindutva movement and Buddhist extremist groups in Asia. Across international far-right violent extremist trends we see an increase in violence inducing conspiracy theory networks, including new trends revolving around anti-vaccination movements and even anti-5G movements that have an effect on technology companies.

White Supremacy

Insights can aid in contextualizing the overall ideology and diversity of groups implied by the term “Far-Right”. Relevant research focusing on the Far-Right and White Supremacy present useful explorations of how groups have attempted to exploit and sometimes been deplatformed by platforms, along with wider exposés on global online far right activity. Additionally, available research hones in on particular groups such as QAnon, the Proud Boys, amongst others.

  • 24th August 2023
    ‘Salad Bar Extremism’ as White Distraction: The (In)coherence of a Category
    Anna Meier
  • 23rd August 2023
    White Jihad: The Jihadification of White Supremacy
    Ariel Koch
  • 26th July 2022
    Comparing Online Posting Typologies Among Violent and Nonviolent Right-Wing Extremists
    Dr. Ryan Scrivens, Dr. Garth Davies, Tiana Gaudette and Dr. Richard Frank
  • 20th July 2022
    White Nationalism, Stormfront, and the Extremist Politicisation of Science
    Yotam Ophir, Ayse Lokmanoglu, Dror Walter and Meredith L. Pruden
  • 18th July 2022
    Examining White Supremacist and Militant Accelerationism Trends on TikTok
    Abbie Richards
  • 18th November 2021
    Understanding Accelerationist Narratives: The Boogaloo
    Matthew Kriner, Alex Newhouse and Jonathan Lewis
  • 31st August 2021
    Erstwhile Allies and Community Convergence: A Preliminary Study of Online Interactions Between Salafi-Jihadists and White Supremacists
    Meili Criezis and Brian Hughes
  • 13th August 2021
    Insurrection Snapshot: Emerging Narrative Themes Following the January 6 Storming of the US Capitol
    Meili Criezis and Kesa White
  • 13th May 2021
    Examining Online Indicators of Extremism in Violent Right-Wing Extremist Forums
    Dr. Ryan Scrivens, Amanda Isabel Osuna, Dr. Steven Chermak, Michael Whitney, and Dr. Richard Frank

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