Once a government or tech company develops a definition of terrorism or violent extremism, it can be difficult to know how to apply these definitions to the variety of ways that terrorism and violent extremism manifests internationally and across online spaces.

This section of the site aims to highlight contextual resources on themes related to applying definitions to the online space.  GIFCT funds the Global Network on Extremism and Technology (GNET) to bring forward actionable insights from experts and practitioners around the world to better inform and give context to tech companies, governments, practitioners and other stakeholders in this field. Insights are curated here under context-based themes.



Ideologically motivated violent groups and movements take different forms in different parts of the world. In a post-9/11 framework, and particularly since the rise of ISIS, most terrorist studies and counter-extremism work have focussed on Islamist extremist groups. However, we also see modern trends of groups associated with white supremacy and neo-Naziism, misogyny-based violent extremist groups often referred to as being part of the “incel” community, far-left groups, and neo-nationalist groups such as the Hindutva movement and Buddhist extremist groups in Asia. Across international far-right violent extremist trends we see an increase in violence inducing conspiracy theory networks, including new trends revolving around anti-vaccination movements and even anti-5G movements that have an effect on technology companies.

Islamist Extremism

Looking at Islamist violent extremism, insights fascilitate in contextualizing the overall violently motivated ideology and specific groups. Relevant research focusing on violent Islamist extemism presents useful explorations of the groups’ online activity such as the ways in which they circumvent online safeguards, along with wider exposés on global online activity. Additionally, research hones in on particular groups such as the Islamic State (DAESH), the Taliban, Al-Qaeda, and Boko Haram, among others.

  • 23rd August 2023
    White Jihad: The Jihadification of White Supremacy
    Ariel Koch
  • 06th March 2023
    Soliciting Online Bayʿat: Pro-Islamic State Responses to Abu al-Hassan al-Hashimi al-Qurashi’s Death
    Meili Criezis and Mona Thakkar
  • 10th January 2023
    Supreme Men, Subjected Women: Gender Inequality and Violence in Jihadist, Far-Right, and Male Supremacist Ideologies
    Joana Cook and Josh Roose
  • 25th August 2022
    Humour in Jihadi Rhetoric: A Comparative Analysis of ISIS, Al-Qaeda, TTP, and the Taliban
    Weeda Mehran
  • 08th August 2022
    Al Qa’ida and Islamic State Supporter Reactions to Zawahiri’s Death
    Meili Criezis
  • 28th June 2022
    Al Qaeda, Islamic State, and Targeted Online Propaganda Around India’s Domestic Political Discourse
    Kabir Taneja
  • 17th June 2022
    ‘Mujahideen in the West’: Al-Qaeda’s Newest Attack-Inciting Magazine
    Rueben Dass and Jasminder Singh
  • 15th June 2022
    Islamic State Audacity of Hope/Facebook’s Islamic State Problem
    Dani O
  • 17th May 2022
    Why Do Online Countering Violent Extremism Strategies Not Work? The Case of Digital Jihad
    Miron Lakomy

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