Once a government or tech company develops a definition of terrorism or violent extremism, it can be difficult to know how to apply these definitions to the variety of ways that terrorism and violent extremism manifests internationally and across online spaces.

This section of the site aims to highlight contextual resources on themes related to applying definitions to the online space.  GIFCT funds the Global Network on Extremism and Technology (GNET) to bring forward actionable insights from experts and practitioners around the world to better inform and give context to tech companies, governments, practitioners and other stakeholders in this field. Insights are curated here under context-based themes.



Ideologically motivated violent groups and movements take different forms in different parts of the world. In a post-9/11 framework, and particularly since the rise of ISIS, most terrorist studies and counter-extremism work have focussed on Islamist extremist groups. However, we also see modern trends of groups associated with white supremacy and neo-Naziism, misogyny-based violent extremist groups often referred to as being part of the “incel” community, far-left groups, and neo-nationalist groups such as the Hindutva movement and Buddhist extremist groups in Asia. Across international far-right violent extremist trends we see an increase in violence inducing conspiracy theory networks, including new trends revolving around anti-vaccination movements and even anti-5G movements that have an effect on technology companies.

Incel/Misogny Based Violence

Insights explor the overall ideology and groups involved in Incel (“involuntary celebate”) movements and online communities associated with wider misogyny-based violent extremism. Relevant research explores online presence on platforms, along with reviewing trends on global online misogyny-based violent activity.

  • 07th May 2024
    Hiding in Plain Sight: How the ‘Newgen’ Misogynistic Incel Content Creators Escape Moderation on TikTok
    Anda Solea
  • 11th March 2024
    ‘Doing What God Designed Men To Do’: Red Pilled Christians’ Quest for Patriarchy, According to Scripture
    Elyse Willemsen
  • 10th January 2024
    Slipping Through the Cracks: Recognising Extremist Misogyny Outside of Inceldom
    Erin Stoner
  • 30th November 2023
    The Great Replacement in the Manosphere: Implications for Terrorism
    Alexander Faehrmann and Dr Steven Zech
  • 27th November 2023
    Men, Masculinities and Memes: The Case of Incels
    Jayden Haworth
  • 16th May 2023
    The Allen, Texas Mass Shooting: An Examination of Misogyny, Anti-Asian Racism, and Internalised Racism
    Meili Criezis
  • 16th March 2023
    Unpacking the Incelosphere: In-group Categorisation, Incel Purity, and Competition
    GNET Team
  • 15th March 2023
    Discourses of Violence in Incel Online Discussions After the Plymouth Shooting
    Emilia Lounela
  • 14th March 2023
    ‘Incels are shit-post kings’: incels’ perceptions of online forum content
    Sarah Daly

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