Once a government or tech company develops a definition of terrorism or violent extremism, it can be difficult to know how to apply these definitions to the variety of ways that terrorism and violent extremism manifests internationally and across online spaces.

This section of the site aims to highlight contextual resources on themes related to applying definitions to the online space.  GIFCT funds the Global Network on Extremism and Technology (GNET) to bring forward actionable insights from experts and practitioners around the world to better inform and give context to tech companies, governments, practitioners and other stakeholders in this field. Insights are curated here under context-based themes.



Ideologically motivated violent groups and movements take different forms in different parts of the world. In a post-9/11 framework, and particularly since the rise of ISIS, most terrorist studies and counter-extremism work have focussed on Islamist extremist groups. However, we also see modern trends of groups associated with white supremacy and neo-Naziism, misogyny-based violent extremist groups often referred to as being part of the “incel” community, far-left groups, and neo-nationalist groups such as the Hindutva movement and Buddhist extremist groups in Asia. Across international far-right violent extremist trends we see an increase in violence inducing conspiracy theory networks, including new trends revolving around anti-vaccination movements and even anti-5G movements that have an effect on technology companies.


Insights can aid in contextualizing the overall ideology and diversity of groups implied by the term “Far-Right”. Relevant research focusing on the Far-Right and White Supremacy present useful explorations of how groups have attempted to exploit and sometimes been deplatformed by platforms, along with wider exposés on global online far right activity. Additionally, available research hones in on particular groups such as QAnon, the Proud Boys, amongst others.

  • 25th March 2024
    Preparing for the Boogaloo: How Far-Right Communities Rallied on Discord for the Unite the Right Rally
    Amin Mekacher
  • 11th March 2024
    ‘Doing What God Designed Men To Do’: Red Pilled Christians’ Quest for Patriarchy, According to Scripture
    Elyse Willemsen
  • 10th January 2024
    Slipping Through the Cracks: Recognising Extremist Misogyny Outside of Inceldom
    Erin Stoner
  • 28th November 2023
    Online Gendered Narratives, LGBTQI+ Targeting, and the Far-Right in Australia and the UK
    Dr Alexandra Phelan, Claudia Wallner, Jessica White and James Paterson
  • 15th November 2023
    ‘We Don’t Co-parent with the Government’: Gender Ideology as a Global Culture War
    Catherine Tebaldi
  • 03rd November 2023
    Behind the Instagram Posts: The Role of Female Influencers on the Far-Right
    Jordan Chapman
  • 24th July 2023
    Europe’s Thin Blue Line: How The Far-Right Imposes Its Ideology On The Police
    Ricardo Parreira
  • 19th July 2023
    The ‘Critical’ and the ‘Sheep’: How Users of Far-Right Pages on Social Media See Themselves and the Mainstream
    Audrey Gagnon
  • 07th July 2023
    Tradwives: The Housewives Commodifying Right-Wing Ideology
    Sophia Sykes and Dr Veronica Hopner

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