Once a government or tech company develops a definition of terrorism or violent extremism, it can be difficult to know how to apply these definitions to the variety of ways that terrorism and violent extremism manifests internationally and across online spaces.

This section of the site aims to highlight contextual resources on themes related to applying definitions to the online space.  GIFCT funds the Global Network on Extremism and Technology (GNET) to bring forward actionable insights from experts and practitioners around the world to better inform and give context to tech companies, governments, practitioners and other stakeholders in this field. Insights are curated here under context-based themes.



Ideologically motivated violent groups and movements take different forms in different parts of the world. In a post-9/11 framework, and particularly since the rise of ISIS, most terrorist studies and counter-extremism work have focussed on Islamist extremist groups. However, we also see modern trends of groups associated with white supremacy and neo-Naziism, misogyny-based violent extremist groups often referred to as being part of the “incel” community, far-left groups, and neo-nationalist groups such as the Hindutva movement and Buddhist extremist groups in Asia. Across international far-right violent extremist trends we see an increase in violence inducing conspiracy theory networks, including new trends revolving around anti-vaccination movements and even anti-5G movements that have an effect on technology companies.


Far-left extremism takes on wide variations in different parts of the world. Research on such groups in India shows why some far-left insurgencies use more traditional methods in efforts against the state. Far left and far-right ideologies imagine different extreme futures. The ideological collision between anti-5G, the coronavirus, and the far-right shows the difference in the type of infrastructure, aesthetic and attack forms both extreme ideologies employ. In German speaking countries, both far-right and far-left ideological extremists use disinformation and conspiracy theories to exploit people’s insecurities, divide communities and create breeding ground for political agenda.

  • 02nd October 2023
    Tankies: A Data-driven Understanding of Left-Wing Extremists on Social Media
    Utkucan Balci, Michael Sirivianos and Jeremy Blackburn
  • 25th January 2022
    The EU Nuclear Option and the Potential for a Recrudescence of Anti-Nuclear Violence
    Mauro Lubrano
  • 01st June 2021
    Choosing Offline: Why India’s ‘Other’ Insurgencies Have not Gone Digital
    Kabir Teneja
  • 15th February 2021
    Infrastructure, Sabotage, and Accelerationism
    Dr. Michael Loadenthal
  • 17th December 2020
    ‘Crisis and a Loss of Control’ – Digital Extremism in German-Speaking Countries During the COVID-19 Crisis
    Jakob Guhl

We use cookies to improve your experience on our website. See our privacy policy.