Once a government or tech company develops a definition of terrorism or violent extremism, it can be difficult to know how to apply these definitions to the variety of ways that terrorism and violent extremism manifests internationally and across online spaces.

This section of the site aims to highlight contextual resources on themes related to applying definitions to the online space.  GIFCT funds the Global Network on Extremism and Technology (GNET) to bring forward actionable insights from experts and practitioners around the world to better inform and give context to tech companies, governments, practitioners and other stakeholders in this field. Insights are curated here under context-based themes.



Ideologically motivated violent groups and movements take different forms in different parts of the world. In a post-9/11 framework, and particularly since the rise of ISIS, most terrorist studies and counter-extremism work have focussed on Islamist extremist groups. However, we also see modern trends of groups associated with white supremacy and neo-Naziism, misogyny-based violent extremist groups often referred to as being part of the “incel” community, far-left groups, and neo-nationalist groups such as the Hindutva movement and Buddhist extremist groups in Asia. Across international far-right violent extremist trends we see an increase in violence inducing conspiracy theory networks, including new trends revolving around anti-vaccination movements and even anti-5G movements that have an effect on technology companies.

Conspiracy Theory

Conspiracy theories now exist across the far-right to far-left spectrum. Research shows te various effects in misleading the public. One such observable subcultural convergence of various conspiracy theories is against ‘the establishment,’ in this case liberal democracies. Among Spanish speaking audiences, conspiracy theories online are circulated and re-circulated in ways that are harder to identify and trace.

  • 11th March 2024
    ‘Doing What God Designed Men To Do’: Red Pilled Christians’ Quest for Patriarchy, According to Scripture
    Elyse Willemsen
  • 30th November 2023
    The Great Replacement in the Manosphere: Implications for Terrorism
    Alexander Faehrmann and Dr Steven Zech
  • 04th September 2023
    Conspiracy Theories, Extremism and Violence: Why and When do Conspiracy Beliefs Lead to Violence?
    Jakob Guhl
  • 15th February 2023
    The Dangers of Pseudohistorical Conspiracy Theories
    Harrison Pates
  • 27th January 2023
    Mainstreaming Far-Right Conspiracies: Éric Zemmour’s Discourse as a Case Study
    Sarah Cammarata
  • 23rd November 2022
    Cranking Out Violence: Conspiracies are Driving More Politically-Motivated Attacks
    Erica Barbarossa and Isabela Bernardo
  • 12th September 2022
    Analysing Terrorgram Publications: A New Digital Zine
    Matthew Kriner and Bjørn Ihler
  • 31st August 2022
    The Time for e-Democracy is Now: How a Digitally Functional Democracy Could Prevent Extremist Accelerationism
    Jon Deedman
  • 23rd August 2022
    Incel Extremism in India: A View from the Global South
    Gurpreet Kaur

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