Once a government or tech company develops a definition of terrorism or violent extremism, it can be difficult to know how to apply these definitions to the variety of ways that terrorism and violent extremism manifests internationally and across online spaces.

This section of the site aims to highlight contextual resources on themes related to applying definitions to the online space.  GIFCT funds the Global Network on Extremism and Technology (GNET) to bring forward actionable insights from experts and practitioners around the world to better inform and give context to tech companies, governments, practitioners and other stakeholders in this field. Insights are curated here under context-based themes.



Ideologically motivated violent groups and movements take different forms in different parts of the world. In a post-9/11 framework, and particularly since the rise of ISIS, most terrorist studies and counter-extremism work have focussed on Islamist extremist groups. However, we also see modern trends of groups associated with white supremacy and neo-Naziism, misogyny-based violent extremist groups often referred to as being part of the “incel” community, far-left groups, and neo-nationalist groups such as the Hindutva movement and Buddhist extremist groups in Asia. Across international far-right violent extremist trends we see an increase in violence inducing conspiracy theory networks, including new trends revolving around anti-vaccination movements and even anti-5G movements that have an effect on technology companies.


The recent global events around the Coronavirus pandemic increased conspiracy theories against vaccinations. In particular, research points to far-right extremist groups and movements capitalizing on public fears around the pandemic and promoting outright denial and apocalypticism. GNET insights also point to country-specific trends around the rise of antivax conspiracies in Australia and Canada.

  • 04th September 2023
    Conspiracy Theories, Extremism and Violence: Why and When do Conspiracy Beliefs Lead to Violence?
    Jakob Guhl
  • 20th July 2022
    White Nationalism, Stormfront, and the Extremist Politicisation of Science
    Yotam Ophir, Ayse Lokmanoglu, Dror Walter and Meredith L. Pruden
  • 18th February 2022
    Crowdfunding and Protest Financing: Emergency Law in Canada
    Jessica Davis
  • 24th September 2020
    Increased Visibility of Far-Right Movements in Australia During the COVID-19 Pandemic
    Samaya Borom
  • 21st April 2020
    5G and the Far Right: How Extremists Capitalise on Coronavirus Conspiracies
    Dr. Alexander Meleagrou-Hitchens, Blyth Crawford

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