Once a government or tech company develops a definition of terrorism or violent extremism, it can be difficult to know how to apply these definitions to the variety of ways that terrorism and violent extremism manifests internationally and across online spaces.

This section of the site aims to highlight contextual resources on themes related to applying definitions to the online space.  GIFCT funds the Global Network on Extremism and Technology (GNET) to bring forward actionable insights from experts and practitioners around the world to better inform and give context to tech companies, governments, practitioners and other stakeholders in this field. Insights are curated here under context-based themes.



Ideologically motivated violent groups and movements take different forms in different parts of the world. In a post-9/11 framework, and particularly since the rise of ISIS, most terrorist studies and counter-extremism work have focussed on Islamist extremist groups. However, we also see modern trends of groups associated with white supremacy and neo-Naziism, misogyny-based violent extremist groups often referred to as being part of the “incel” community, far-left groups, and neo-nationalist groups such as the Hindutva movement and Buddhist extremist groups in Asia. Across international far-right violent extremist trends we see an increase in violence inducing conspiracy theory networks, including new trends revolving around anti-vaccination movements and even anti-5G movements that have an effect on technology companies.

  • 26th February 2024
    ‘Stand Against the Wiles of the Devil’: Interpreting QAnon as a Pseudo-Christian Extremist Movement
    Nicolò Miotto and Dr. Julian Droogan
  • 11th September 2023
    Why We Should Care about Christian Identity Ideology and its Links to Antisemitic Mobilisation
    Eliza Marks
  • 04th September 2023
    Conspiracy Theories, Extremism and Violence: Why and When do Conspiracy Beliefs Lead to Violence?
    Jakob Guhl
  • 06th December 2022
    Deconstructing the ‘Jewess’: an Exploration of Gendered Antisemitism
    Hannah Rose
  • 14th October 2022
    The Bratislava Attacks: Insights from the Shooter’s Manifesto
    Hannah Rose
  • 27th September 2022
    Resurrecting the Reich: Middle Eastern and North African Digital Nazi Communities
    Moustafa Ayad
  • 26th July 2022
    Comparing Online Posting Typologies Among Violent and Nonviolent Right-Wing Extremists
    Dr. Ryan Scrivens, Dr. Garth Davies, Tiana Gaudette and Dr. Richard Frank
  • 21st April 2022
    The Protocols of Antisemitism: Cross Ideological Fixation on “Jewish Power”
    Dani O
  • 14th March 2022
    “Victims of the Holocaust”: The ‘Freedom Convoy’ Subreddits as Spaces for Antisemitism and Far-Right Radicalisation
    Bàrbara Molas

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