Once a government or tech company develops a definition of terrorism or violent extremism, it can be difficult to know how to apply these definitions to the variety of ways that terrorism and violent extremism manifests internationally and across online spaces.

This section of the site aims to highlight contextual resources on themes related to applying definitions to the online space.  GIFCT funds the Global Network on Extremism and Technology (GNET) to bring forward actionable insights from experts and practitioners around the world to better inform and give context to tech companies, governments, practitioners and other stakeholders in this field. Insights are curated here under context-based themes.



Ideologically motivated violent groups and movements take different forms in different parts of the world. In a post-9/11 framework, and particularly since the rise of ISIS, most terrorist studies and counter-extremism work have focussed on Islamist extremist groups. However, we also see modern trends of groups associated with white supremacy and neo-Naziism, misogyny-based violent extremist groups often referred to as being part of the “incel” community, far-left groups, and neo-nationalist groups such as the Hindutva movement and Buddhist extremist groups in Asia. Across international far-right violent extremist trends we see an increase in violence inducing conspiracy theory networks, including new trends revolving around anti-vaccination movements and even anti-5G movements that have an effect on technology companies.

  • 25th August 2022
    Humour in Jihadi Rhetoric: A Comparative Analysis of ISIS, Al-Qaeda, TTP, and the Taliban
    Weeda Mehran
  • 08th August 2022
    Al Qa’ida and Islamic State Supporter Reactions to Zawahiri’s Death
    Meili Criezis
  • 28th June 2022
    Al Qaeda, Islamic State, and Targeted Online Propaganda Around India’s Domestic Political Discourse
    Kabir Taneja
  • 17th June 2022
    ‘Mujahideen in the West’: Al-Qaeda’s Newest Attack-Inciting Magazine
    Rueben Dass and Jasminder Singh
  • 23rd November 2021
    American Interest in Global Jihad – A Google Trend Analysis
    Dr. Antoine Jardin
  • 13th September 2021
    20 Years After 9/11 – Why Islamic State’s Propaganda Hasn’t Overshadowed Al-Qaeda’s
    Laurence Bindner and Raphael Gluck
  • 17th June 2021
    Affirmations of Support and Rituals of Jihadi Martyrdoms
    Aaron Zelin
  • 19th May 2021
    The Digital Transformations of Al-Qaeda and Islamic State in the Battle Against Online Propaganda
    Héni Nsaibia and Rida Lyammouri
  • 07th May 2021
    Online Jihadist Chants: An Access Point for Incitement of Violence
    El Mostafa Rezrazi and Brahim Essafi

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