Once a government or tech company develops a definition of terrorism or violent extremism, it can be difficult to know how to apply these definitions to the variety of ways that terrorism and violent extremism manifests internationally and across online spaces.

This section of the site aims to highlight contextual resources on themes related to applying definitions to the online space.  GIFCT funds the Global Network on Extremism and Technology (GNET) to bring forward actionable insights from experts and practitioners around the world to better inform and give context to tech companies, governments, practitioners and other stakeholders in this field. Insights are curated here under context-based themes.



Ideologically motivated violent groups and movements take different forms in different parts of the world. In a post-9/11 framework, and particularly since the rise of ISIS, most terrorist studies and counter-extremism work have focussed on Islamist extremist groups. However, we also see modern trends of groups associated with white supremacy and neo-Naziism, misogyny-based violent extremist groups often referred to as being part of the “incel” community, far-left groups, and neo-nationalist groups such as the Hindutva movement and Buddhist extremist groups in Asia. Across international far-right violent extremist trends we see an increase in violence inducing conspiracy theory networks, including new trends revolving around anti-vaccination movements and even anti-5G movements that have an effect on technology companies.

  • 02nd October 2023
    Tankies: A Data-driven Understanding of Left-Wing Extremists on Social Media
    Utkucan Balci, Michael Sirivianos and Jeremy Blackburn
  • 11th September 2023
    Why We Should Care about Christian Identity Ideology and its Links to Antisemitic Mobilisation
    Eliza Marks
  • 04th September 2023
    Conspiracy Theories, Extremism and Violence: Why and When do Conspiracy Beliefs Lead to Violence?
    Jakob Guhl
  • 24th August 2023
    ‘Salad Bar Extremism’ as White Distraction: The (In)coherence of a Category
    Anna Meier
  • 23rd August 2023
    White Jihad: The Jihadification of White Supremacy
    Ariel Koch
  • 11th August 2023
    Cults and Online Violent Extremism: Individual Risk Assessments
    Inform (Information Network Focus on Religious Movements)
  • 09th August 2023
    Cultic Fandoms: Columbine and Ted Kaczynski
    Inform (Information Network Focus on Religious Movements)
  • 07th August 2023
    Online Cultic Milieus: QAnon and Anti-Vax Conspiracy Movements
    Inform (Information Network Focus on Religious Movements)
  • 03rd August 2023
    ‘Cultic’ Religious Groups: Order of Nine Angles
    Inform (Information Network Focus on Religious Movements)

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